ZUSAMMENFASSUNGEN - SUMMARIA
ON THE OCCASION OF HIS SEVENTY YEARS
He studied philosophy at the Jesuit College (Faculty of Philosophy) in Cracow (1955-1958). He obtained a Master's Degree (MA) after presenting his thesis, Basic Foundations of Marxist Ethics [Podstawowe za³o¿enia etyki marksistowkiej], written under the direction of Tadeusz ¦lipko SJ. He studied theology at the Jesuit College (Faculty of Theology: Bobolanum) in Warsaw (1958-1962). After presenting his thesis Church History of Szczepanowice [Dzieje ko¶cielne Szczepanowic], directed by W³odzimierz Kamiñski SJ, he obtained a Master's Degree in Theology. In the following year (1962/1963), he completed the so-called third probation in Paray-le-Monial, France (a one year study of the rules of the order and of Ignatian spirituality).
He then continued his philosophical studies at the Gregorian University in Rome (1963-1966), where he obtained a Ph.D. after defending his dissertation La théorie marxiste de la verite (director: prof. Gustav A. Wetter SJ). After that, he did post-doctoral work in philosophy at Munich University, Germany (1966/1967) for a year. In 1967, he returned to Poland and settled at the Jesuit College in Cracow, at 26 Copernicus Street.
In 1969, he became an associate professor, and in 1990 he obtained his habilitatio, a post-doctoral academic qualification, at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Pon-tifical Academy of Theology in Cracow after defending his special dissertation: Filozofia w szko³ach jezuickich w Polsce w XVI wieku [Philosophy in Jesuit Schools in Poland in the 16th Century]. In the same year, 1990, he became a full professor.
Since 1967, Darowski has lectured in philosophy, mainly in philosophical anthropology at the Jesuit College (Faculty of Philosophy SJ; since 1999: the Faculty of Philosophy at the University School of Philosophy and Education The Ignatianum) in Cracow. Since 1995, he has been the chairman both of the Department of Philosophical Anthropology and of the Department of the History of Philosophy in Poland. He also was a professor in the Philosophical Section of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology in Cracow (now the Faculty of Philosophy at the Pontifical Academy of Theology), in 1973-1978 and again from 1993 until 2003, where he was chairman of the Modern and Contemporary Philosophy Department. He has also lectured at the Silesian Major Seminary in Cracow (1970-1976).
At the Jesuit College (Faculty of Philosophy SJ) in Cracow, he was a prefect of studies (from 1968-1973) and then a dean (1973-1982, 1994-1997 and again since the 30th of March 2001). From 1973-1982, 1994-1997, and since 2002, he has been a member of the Academic Council of the Polish Episcopal Conference. From 1978 until 1984, he was the rector of the Jesuit College in Cracow. He was president of the Philosophical Section of the Polish Theological Society in Cracow (1970-1974) and of the Jesuit Learned Society in Cracow (1976-1982). He was also a member of the Polish Episcopal Commission for Dialogue with non-believers (1989-1994).
In May 2003, he was elected to the Committee for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish Academy of Sciences for the 2003-2006 term.
Darowski has been connected with the Jesuit Faculty of Philosophy in Cracow for nearly forty years, taking an active part in its organization and management. In many different ways, he informed broad circles of society about the activity of the Faculty.
Under his direction, thirty five students obtained MAs, two obtained PhDs. As a formal reviewer and reader, he helped direct and examine eight successful Ph. D. candidates. He also evaluated the performance of eight professors.
At the Publishing House of the Faculty of Philosophy SJ, of which he was a co-founder in 1972 and manager until 2001, eighty books were published. Between 1988-1994 and 2002-2003, he was editor of the journal Rocznik Wydzia³u Filozoficznego 'Ignatianum' w Krakowie [Yearbook of the Faculty of Philosophy Ignatianum in Cracow]. He was founder and is still the editor of a multilingual yearbook entitled Forum Philosophicum, which has been published since 1996. Since 1999, he has been a member of the Counselling Committee for the journal Principia (Institute of Philosophy, Jagiellonian University in Cracow).
The driving principle Darowski's academic and literary activity is to be open to the international and especially the European context. Therefore he puts a great deal of effort into publishing not only in Polish, but also in major foreign languages. In relation to this, he attaches great importance to disseminating Polish philosophical thought abroad, especially that of the Jesuits - mainly by publishing texts in Western Europe. Darowski took part in the 32nd Jesuit General Congregation in Rome (1974/ 75), and in many academic meetings and conferences both at home and abroad.
He publishes mainly in the field of the history of philosophy in Poland, especially that of the Jesuits, and also in the field of philosophical anthropology. He has consistently studied and systematized the philosophy of the Jesuits in Poland - from the 16th to the 20th century (in the 18th century Jesuits ran forty centres for teaching philosophy).
For many years, he attached great importance to the most outstanding Jesuit philosopher of the 20th century - Pawe³ Siwek. Recently, he concerns himself consistently with Jesuit philosophy in Poland in the 19th and 20th century.
Prof. Darowski has published 15 books and over 250 articles. More significant books are: Cz³owiek i ¦wiat [Man and World], Kraków 1972; La théorie marxiste de la verite, Rome 1973; Cz³owiek: istnienie i dzia³anie [Man: his existence and his activity], Kraków 1974; Filozofia w szko³ach jezuickich w Polsce w XVI wieku, Kraków 1994 [Philosophy in the Jesuit Schools in Poland in the 16th Century], Kraków 1994; Filozofia cz³owieka [Philosophy of Man], Kraków 1995, 3rd ed.: 2002; Studia z filozofii jezuitów w Polsce w XVII i XVIII wieku [Studies in the Philosophy of the Jesuits in Poland in the 17th and 18th Centuries], Kraków 1998; Studies in the Philosophy ofthe Jesuits in Poland in the 16th to 18th Centuries, Cracow 1999; Filozofia jezuitów w Polsce w XX wieku [Philosophy of the Jesuits in Poland in the 20th Century], Kraków 2001.
The philosophical views of Darowski are presented most clearly in his book: Filozofia cz³owieka [Philosophy of Man], Cracow 1995; 3d edition: Cracow 2002.
In Darowski's philosophy, there is noticeable inspiration derived from Aristote-lian and Thomistic tradition. He makes many conscious references to both their essential and existential trends. He also tries to take into consideration new philosophical thought, especially the personalistic and axiological trends, and also - in some way - the dialogical trend (e.g. chapter: Man as a Dialogical Being, p. 123). He does not avoid some new life-science achievements; he attempts to integrate them with philosophy (e.g. chapters: Cielesno¶æ cz³owieka [Carnality of Man], p. 57-62, and Pochodzenie cz³owieka [Genesis of Man], p. 102-105). In the application of his method, especially in its initial stages, there are many elements that resemble a phenomenological description.
Book Review: Roman Darowski, Filozofia cz³owieka: Zarys problematyki. Antologia tekstów [Philosophical Anthropology: Outline of Problems and Anthology], Ignatianum-WAM, Third Edition, Kraków 2002, 276 pp.
Philosophical anthropology occupies a central position within both ancient and contemporary philosophical thought. The questions: who is man, what are his origins and future, the goals and purpose of his life? - continually absorb the attention of all thinking human beings. Anthropological problems have also been, and still are, frequently discussed in Polish philosophical literature, of course from different angles, according to different methodological constructs, ideological worldviews and branches of philosophy.
One of the best known and valued authors in Poland, who has worked within the field of philosophical anthropology for few decades, is Fr. Roman Darowski S.J., Professor of Philosophy at the University School of Philosophy and Education 'Ignatianum' and at the Pontifical Thelogical Academy in Kraków. He is a dean of the Faculty of Philosophy in the former-mentioned institution, as well as the editor-in-chief of „Forum Philosophicum". Professor Darowski is, among others, author of the books: Cz³owiek i ¶wiat [Man and the World] (1972), Cz³owiek: istnienie i dzia³anie [Man: existence and action] (1974), and Filozofia cz³owieka [Philosophical Anthropology] (1995).
The work under discussion was published for the third time in 2002, when it was simultaneously considerably enlarged. The book consists of two main parts: a thematic-problematic part, written by the author, and also an anthology of classical writings on the subject of man. In the first part, the first two introductory chapters are followed by fifteen chapters, which cover a series of issues from the field of philosophical anthropology.
The chapter entitled „Introductory Questions" discusses, among other things, the characteristics of the philosophical anthropology, the definition of this discipline, its position with respect to other studies of man, the method of studying philosophical anthropology and finally, the fundamental issues. The author makes links with the classical Aristotelian - Thomistic philosophy. Evidence of this can be seen in his proposed definition of human philosophy, as „a rational science about man in the light of his ultimate causes, in other words, his basic condition" (p. 17). This is without doubt a Thomistic statement, though open to current philosophical thought. This is expressed, for example, in the discussion of the method of philosophical anthropology, where two stages are distinguished: the introductory phase - the phenomenological, and the ontological phase - the metaphysical. The introductory - methodological chapter sets the tone for the dual view of the work: a theoretical - explanatory one, and an existential - didactic one. The author, following the lead of Pope John Paul II, defines three types of human condition: to have, to be, as well as to be and to have.
The second introductory chapter of Philosophical Anthropology is a synthetic outline of the history of this field of philosophy. It mentions: Antiquity, the Middle Ages, Modern Age and the contemporary philosophical theories of man. In the final part of this chapter are discussed: neopositivism, analytical philosophy, phenomenology, the philosophy of dialogue, Marxism and Christian philosophical anthropology. The method of presenting these specific trends of philosophy does not arouse any substantial reservations, and neither, essentially, does their selection. Solely questionable is the omission of existentialism. The short mention made (on p. 49) does not indicate the significant role, which existentialism (theistic and atheistic) has played in the area of philosophy and beyond.
The key part of Professor Darowski's book, currently under discussion, bears the title: „The main problems of philosophical anthropology". It consists of fifteen chapters, whose titles are worth listing here, as they give an indication of the content and structure of this book. These are: 1. Man and the animal world; 2. Embodiment of man; 3. The spiritual element of man; 4. Death and immortality; 5. The structure of the human mind and the process of mental cognition; 6. The relationship between the spiritual and the material elements; 7. Human freedom; 8. Human person and her rights; 9. The origins of man; 10. Man and the world of values; 11. Man as a creator of culture; 12. Man as a historical being; 13. Man as a dialogical being; 14. Man as a social being; 15. Man as a religious being.
The presented layout of the issues of philosophical anthropology is logical, linking the fundamental elements of the anthropology of St Thomas Aquinas with the current thought. Aquinas, while discussing the concept of man in his Summa Theologiae (I, qq. 75-89), firstly presented the category of the soul as a substantial form of the body, and only secondly, controlling forces of the soul - intellect and free will. The influence of Thomistic thought, on the work under discussion, is evident in the fact that the chapters analysing the human mind and the freedom of man follow-on after an initial discussion of the characteristic concepts of the soul - its non-material nature and its immortality. The above statement is by no means a criticism. The author has logically worked out the multi-faceted subject matter of philosophical anthropology. Firstly, he has highlighted the difference between man and the animal world, currently undermined, and even eroded, by some biologists, and not so long ago by Marxists. The following two chapters are devoted to the analysis of the component elements of a human being: his embodiment and his spiritual dimension. The question of death and immortality is a logical continuation of the analyses of the spiritual element in man. The further two chapters of the book discuss the mental regulators of man: intellect and will. The only surprise is that they are separated by a chapter, which looks at the relationship between the spiritual and the material elements of man. Would it not be more logical for the problem of the mutual relationship between the body and the soul, to be discussed directly after the analysis of the component elements of man? Chapter 8 finalizes the examinations undertaken in the work up until this point. The chapter looks at the human person and the rights she is entitled to. The issue of human rights, as raised by the author, quite rightly highlights the questions, so energetically discussed nowadays, of the basis and content of the rights of man as a subject.
The last few chapters of this part of the work discuss the fundamental attributes of the human person. One of them is the fact that man is the creator of culture, but is also a historical, dialogical, social and religious being. It is worth pointing out that some of the considerations contained therein take account of present-day philosophical thought, specifically such its currents as axiology or the philosophy of dialogue. Thanks to this, Professor Darowski's Philosophical Anthropology, being based on Thomistic principles, both enriches and modernizes it. Aquinas did not sufficiently highlight the dynamic-historical dimension of human being. Currently, justifiably, however, one stresses the fact that man is a being that develops in and through history. The author of this reviewed work separately analyzed two human attributes, namely, that man is a dialogical and social being. This division is postulated by the present-day trend in the philosophy of dialogue, while traditional sociological and philosophical thought differentiates between two areas of human social life: the micro-social dimension and the macro-social dimension. The final chapter of the first part of the work discusses and justifies the thesis that man is a religious being.
The chapters ofPhilosophical Anthropologyhave a similar content-structure. They begin with a statement of the author's position in the form of a thesis, which has already be forecast in the contents list at the beginning of the work. Further elements of each chapter are: terminological explanations, an outline of the main points and arguments in favour of the previously stated thesis. The argumentation for the specific theses is made, in the main, by direct, or indirect reference to Aristotelian - Thomistic philosophy, but also on numerous occasions, the author creatively makes links to modern-day philosophy. Thus, Professor Darowski's book is an interesting attempt of joining together the most important elements of Thomas Aquinas' anthropology with the accumulated wealth of current philosophy, specifically with phenomenology and the philosophy of dialogue.
The second important element of this discussed work is the anthology of philosophical texts on man, contained within it. Though there are already a few anthologies of this type, within Polish literature, the author of Philosophical Anthropology, uniquely, attaches more importance to current Polish philosophy. The works of the following authors are mentioned: Aristotle, St Augustine, St Thomas Aquinas, R. Descartes, M. Scheler, R. Ingarden, J. Maritain, P. Siwek, J. Tischner, K. Wojty³a, Cz. Bartnik, M.A. Kr±piec and T. ¦lipko. The inclusion of an anthology of texts on different aspects of philosophical anthropology is a fortunate idea, as it enables the reader to familiarize himself, equally, with the classic works of philosophy, as well as with the works of recent, acclaimed authors. Included in the anthology are documents on human rights and duties, namely: The 1948 General Declaration of Human Rights, sections of John XXIII's encyclical Pacem in Terris, The Charter of a Person's Obligations, announced in Gdañsk, in 2000, and The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, ratified in 2000, in Nice. Interestingly selected fragments of the so-called wisdom literature complete the book. These inspire the reader to deeper reflection on the mystery of a human being.
Professor Roman Darowski's Philosophical Anthropology is a creative addition to the field of Polish philosophy dealing with thoughts on the human being. The account of the specific issues is very clear, as well as simultaneously semantically and methodologically correct. The author avoid using too many annotations, in order to maintain a clarity of prose. At the same time, however, he informs his readers and encourages them to deepen their knowledge of the issues analyzed, by directing them to bibliographies, situated both at the beginning of the book, as well as in each chapter. In accordance with its subtitle, Professor Darowski's Philosophical Anthropology gives an outline of the issues of philosophical anthropology. The author consciously refrains from excessive use of specialist terminology in favour of focusing on answers to modern man's basic questions, and does it with the clarity of an excellent lecturer - a didactic. This book is written for all those who are looking for a guide to finding the truth about man, as a person. Philosophical Anthropology, written by the Cracovian thinker, Fr. Darowski, is a good presentation of current Christian personalism.
OUTLINE OF PROBLEMS
ANTHOLOGY OF TEXTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS